HERE IS WHAT WIKIPEDIA SAYS:
Vector control, also called field-oriented control (FOC), is a variable-frequency drive (VFD) control method where the stator currents of a three-phase AC electric motor are identified as two orthogonal components that can be visualized with a vector. One component defines the magnetic flux of the motor, the other the torque. The control system of the drive calculates from the flux and torque references given by the drive’s speed control the corresponding current component references. Typically proportional-integral (PI) controllers are used to keep the measured current components at their reference values. The pulse-width modulation of the variable-frequency drive defines the transistor switching according to the stator voltage references that are the output of the PI current controllers.
FOC is used to control the AC synchronous and induction motors. It was originally developed for high-performance motor applications that are required to operate smoothly over the full speed range, generate full torque at zero speed, and have high dynamic performance including fast acceleration and deceleration. However, it is becoming increasingly attractive for lower performance applications as well due to FOC’s motor size, cost and power consumption reduction superiority. It is expected that with increasing computational power of the microprocessors it will eventually nearly universally displace single-variable scalar volts-per-Hertz (V/f) control.
What does this mean for electric skateboards? So far the most obvious change is the sound that comes from a motor. check this video out:
It should also make a big difference for hub motors, but there is no evidence of this yet. Also it is meant to be more efficient, but also there is no data yet for this.